Sex and Gender Role Orientation on the Work-Family Interface: Testing Three-Way Interactions

Lu, L., Chang, T. T., and Kao, S. F. 2021. Sex and Gender Role Orientation on the Work-Family Interface: Testing Three-Way Interactions. NTU Management Review, 31 (3): 1-46. doi:10.6226/NTUMR.202112_31(3).0001

Luo Lu, Department of Business Administration, National Taiwan University
Ting-Ting Chang, Department of Industrial Management, Lunghwa University of Science and Technology
Shu-Fan Kao, Department of Applied Psychology, Hsuan Chuang University


From the perspective of gender role orientation, we examined the joint interactive effects of gender role orientation and biological sex on the work and family interface. We conducted a two-wave survey involving 276 employees working in different organizations of diverse industries across Taiwan. After controlling for traditional gender role values, we found significant three-way interactions (sex × gender role orientation × family responsibility) in predicting the bidirectional work and family conflict. Specifically, for men, high femininity strengthened the positive relationships between family responsibility and work-to-family conflict as well as between family responsibility and family-to-work conflict. For women, however, it was low femininity that strengthened the same sets of relationships. Our findings suggest that certain types of non-traditional gender identities (e.g. men endorsing high femininity traits and women endorsing low femininity traits) increase the adjustment challenges for both sexes, especially in a transitional society. Researchers should recognize the differences between the individual's socially prescribed gender role and his/her psychological gender identity, so as to have a more comprehensive and in-depth understanding of men's and women's lived experiences on the work and family interface. 


gendersexgender role orientationwork/family demandswork/family conflict

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